South America is the fourth largest continent in size and the fifth largest when we consider population. Largest Country : Brazil. The country is covering more than half the continent's landmass. Did you know that Brazil is only slightly smaller than the USA? Largest City : Sao Paolo in Brazil.
With more than 21 million inhabitants Sao Paulo is also one of the ten biggest cities in the world. Smallest Country : Suriname. The country is one of the 10 most sparsely populated countries in the world. The Amazon is not only the second longest river in the world after the Nile, but also the Amazon carries more water than the world's other 10 biggest rivers combined! Driest Place : While South America's rain forests also are some of the wettest places on the earth, the Atacama desert in Chile is considered the driest place on earth.
Read more about the world's deserts here. One of the earliest South American civilisations are recorded in Peru. South America was colonised from the late 15th century by foreign conquistadores mainly from Spain and Portugal, but also from the Dutch, British and French. The Incan Empire lasted from until Indigenous cultures still are present in South America but the numbers are diminishing.
Languages in South America : Spanish is the main language in South American countries, only in Brazil people speak Portuguese and in Surinam, formerly a Dutch colony, the official language is still Dutch. Many people speak also English as a second language. Quechua, the language spoken by the Inca, is the most common indigenous language.AP Human Geography - Political Geography - Chapter 8 Key Issue 3
Almost half of the population of the South American continent lives in Brazil. Did you know?South America and North America are named after Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not part of the East Indies, but an entirely separate landmass.
The portions of the landmass that lie south of the Isthmus of Panama became known as South America. These deep relationships continue to flourish on the continent through celebration, religionand political action.Marketing managers starting salary chart
Cultural Geography Historic Cultures The historic cultures of South America developed in connection with distinct regional landscapes. The three principal regions of early development were the Pacific coastsuited to fishing and trading societies; the major rivers of the Amazon basin, with abundant water, plant, and animal resources; and the Andes, where mountains provided security.
The Incan Empire is the most well known indigenous culture of South America. Over a period of years, the empire expanded to include parts of present-day Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, and Colombia. In order to communicate throughout this vast region, the Inca built an expansive network of roads. This network was made up of two main north-south roads, one running along the Pacific coast and another through the Andes. Many east-west roads connected the two. The importation of African slave s represented a major shift in the cultural landscape of South America.
Most slaves were brought to Brazil. Their unique cultural practices were integrate d with indigenous Indian beliefs as well as European ritual s. Priests and other followers of these religions interacted with one another in large Brazilian slave communities.
South America: Human Geography
These faiths are polytheisticmeaning they honor many gods and goddesses. Slave owners and church leaders put slaves under intense pressure to convert to Catholic ism, a monotheisticor one-god, religion. Other historic cultures of South America developed with the physical, as well as cultural, landscape. In the midth century, gauchos hunted herd s of wild horses and cattle that roamed freely on the extensive grassland s. They then sold their hide s and tallow —waxy fat used in making candles and soap—at a high price to European traders.
Much like the North American cowboy, the gaucho was praised as free-spirited, strong, and honest. A popular culture of songs, stories, and films developed around the gaucho image. Gaucho culture still persists, especially in Argentina and Uruguay, where gaucho dress, song, and food are used to evoke national pride. Organizations are reaching a broader global audience in order to spread social and political messages, and bring in revenue from tourism and investment.Course catalog niagara university jobs
Indigenous societies continue to have a strong presence in South America. COICA protects indigenous practices, focusing on sustainable use of resources. The group has worked on issues such as environmental legislation, cultural representation, and leadership training for indigenous peoples. Religious practices remain the backbone of many South American cultures.
While Catholicism dominates the continent, other spiritual beliefs have influenced both spiritual and secular activities. The Carnival of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a festival held every year about 40 days before Easter, is an important example of a religious celebration that has been adopted by secular culture. It is both an important event in the Catholic calendar and one of the largest revenue generators in Rio. The Rio Carnival is the largest carnival event in the world, attracting millions of Brazilian and foreign tourists.
During Carnival season, hotel prices are often four times higher than average.South America can be divided into three physical region s: mountain s and highlands, river basin s, and coastal plain s. Mountains and coastal plains generally run in a north-south direction, while highlands and river basins generally run in an east-west direction.
A biome is a community of animals and plants that spreads over an area with a relatively uniform climate. The range covers about 8, kilometers 5, miles.Rice university supplementary essay
Situated on the far western edge of the continent, the Andes stretch from the southern tip to the northernmost coast of South America. There are hundreds of peaks more than 4, meters 15, feet tall, many of which are volcanic.
The highest peak in the Andes, Aconcagua, stands at 6, meters 22, feet and straddles the Argentina-Chile border. Aconcagua is the tallest mountain outside Asia. High plateau s are also a feature of the Andes. The altiplano of Peru and Bolivia, for example, has an elevation of about 3, meters 12, feet. The Patagonia region of Argentina and Chile consists of lower-elevation plateaus and rugged glacier s.
Most plants in the alpine biome are small, and their leaves are stiff and strong to protect them from frost and drought.
The largest herb in the world, Puya raimondiiis known as the Queen of the Andes. A Puya raimondii can live for years and can grow to more than 9 meters 30 feet tall. The leaves of this endangered species all grow from one woody stemallowing moisture to run down the leaves to the base of the plant.
Located south of the Amazon River in Brazil, the Brazilian Highlands are made up of low mountains and plateaus that rise to an average elevation of 1, meters 3, feet. The heavily forested plateau of the Guiana Highlands covers southern Venezuela, French Guiana, Guyana, northern Brazil, and a portion of southeastern Colombia.
The Amazon River basin has an area of almost 7 million square kilometers 2. The basin, which covers most of northern South America, is fed by tributaries from the glaciers of the Andes.
Every second, the Amazon River emptiescubic meters 7, cubic feet of freshwater into the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon River is the life force of the equally vast Amazon rain forest, which makes up about half of the rain forest of the entire planet. This tropical biome has as many as different tree species on a single acre, including the rubber tree, silk cotton tree, and Brazil nut tree.
The diversity of animal life in the Amazon rain forest is un surpass ed in the rest of the world. The rain forest is perfectly suited for arborealor tree-living, animals. More than 2 million species of insects are native to the region, including hundreds of spiders and butterflies.
Primate s are abundant—howler monkeys, spider monkeys, and capuchin monkeys—along with sloths, snakes, and iguanas. Thousands of native birds include brightly colored macaws, parrots, toucans, and parakeets.
The Orinoco River flows north of the Amazon. The Orinoco flows in a giant arc for more than 2, kilometers 1, milesoriginating in the Guiana Highlands of northern Brazil and discharging in the Atlantic Ocean in Venezuela. The Orinoco River basin covers an area of aboutsquare kilometerssquare miles and encompasses approximately 80 percent of Venezuela and 25 percent of Colombia. A vast savanna or grassland region, known as the Llanos, is the primary biome of the Orinoco River basin.Generally, the continents of North American and South America are divided at the Isthmus of Panama, the narrow strip of land that connects the two large landmasses.
Culturally, though, Middle America, including the Caribbean, is quite similar to South America and this region shares a distinct pattern of colonial development.
Since Mexico shares strong cultural and historical similarities with the countries of Central America, they are grouped together in this text. This region also includes the islands of the Caribbean.
South of Middle America is the continent of South America, extending from the tropical sand beaches of Colombia to the frigid islands of southern Chile and Argentina.
Haiti, for example, located on the eastern half of the island of Hispaniola, is situated on the edge of the Caribbean plate along a transform plate boundary. A magnitude 7. These tectonic collisions have created a landscape of relatively high relief, particularly in Middle America and western South America. Further east, the tectonic collision of the Caribbean plate and the North American plate formed the Caribbean archipelagoor island chain. Many of these islands are the tops of underwater mountains.
In addition to earthquakes and volcanoes, the region is prone to tropical cyclones, also known as hurricanes.
South America Facts
The areas along the Gulf of Mexico, in particular, lie in the path of frequent hurricanes. The high relief of Central America has created distinct agricultural and livestock zones, known as altitudinal zonation. The hot, coastal area known as the tierra calientefor example, can support tropical crops like bananas and rice. Past the tree line in the higher elevation of the tierra heladaanimals like llamas can graze on cool grasses. In this way, even countries with a relatively small land area can support a wide variety of agricultural activities.
They are the highest mountains outside of Asia. Situated in the Andes is the Altiplanoa series of high elevation plains. These wide basins were central to early human settlement of the continent. The rest of South America is relatively flat. The river dischargescubic meters 7. Its drainage basin covers an area of over 7 million square kilometers 2.
Numerous rivers snake across Central America, but the most prominent water feature is Lake Nicaragua. This large, freshwater lake is home to numerous species of fish and provides both economic and recreational benefits to the people of Nicaragua. Plans were approved to build a canal through Nicaragua to connect the Caribbean Sea to Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Ocean though many worry about the ecological impacts of such a large-scale project.
The canal was started in by the French, in what was then territory owned by Colombia, but the project was a failure. French construction workers were unprepared for the torrential Central American rainy season, dense jungle, and difficult geology. The United States helped Panama achieve independence from Colombia and in exchange, Panama granted the US rights to build and control the canal.
Inthe US continued where the French had left off and in just ten years, the project was completed. Over 5, workers died during the US construction project.
Panama regained control of the canal in When the canal was completed, it accommodated around 1, ships per year.It is the southern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphereor simply the Americas.
The continent is compact and roughly triangular in shape, being broad in the north and tapering to a point— Cape HornChile—in the south. South America is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest and north, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
In the northwest it is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panamaa land bridge narrowing to about 50 miles 80 km at one point. Relatively few islands rim the continent, except in the south. These include the glaciated coastal archipelagoes of Argentina and Chile. The Falkland Malvinas Islands are east of southern Argentina. To the north, the West Indies stretch from Trinidad to Florida, but those islands usually are associated with North America.
Of the remainder, most are small oceanic islands off the coasts of South America, including the Galapagos IslandsEcuadorin the Pacific Ocean. South America has a total area of about 6, square miles 17, square kmor roughly one-eighth of the land surface of Earth. The name America is derived from that of the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespuccione of the earliest European explorers of the New World.
The term America originally was applied only to South America, but the designation soon was applied to the entire landmass. Because Mexico and Central America share an Iberian heritage with nearly all of South America, this entire region frequently is grouped under the name Latin America. In the larger, eastern portion are found a number of stable shields forming highland regions, separated by large basins including the vast Amazon basin. The western portion is occupied almost entirely by the Andes Mountains.
The Andes—formed as the South American Plate drifted westward and forced the oceanic plate to the west under it—constitute a gigantic backbone along the entire Pacific coast of the continent. No other continent—except Antarctica—penetrates so far to the south. Although the northern part of South America extends north of the Equator and four-fifths of its landmass is located within the tropics, it also reaches subantarctic latitudes.
Much of the high Andes lie within the tropics but include extensive zones of temperate or cold climate in the vicinity of the Equator —a circumstance that is unique.
The great range in elevation produces an unrivaled diversity of climatic and ecological zones, which is probably the most prominent characteristic of South American geography. The original inhabitants of South America are believed to have descended from the same Asiatic peoples who migrated to North America from Siberia during the most recent Wisconsin ice age.Filament ai experts in applied ai
Few of these peoples, however, survived the arrival of Europeans aftermost succumbing to disease or mixing with people of European and especially in Brazil African origin. Some parts of the continent are now industrialized, with modern cities, but the people in rural areas still follow an agricultural way of life.
The wealth of mineral products and renewable resources is considerable, yet economic development in most of the continent lags behind the more industrially advanced regions of the world. Nonetheless, concern has arisen about the rapidly increasing and often destructive exploitation of these resources. For discussion of individual countries of the continent, see specific articles by name—e.
For discussion of the indigenous peoples of the continent, see the articles South American Indian ; and pre-Columbian civilizations. Related topics are discussed in the articles Latin America, history ofand Latin American literature. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.PS contains styrene, which is toxic to the brain and nervous system.
Read more about BPA here. So when in doubt, ask. And I tell all my friends. My views and yours tally to a great extent, in having a plastic free life thus reducing plastic waste and trash. Or they could ude peanut shells or maybe combine these. What you are doing is great, I wish we were all like yourself. I will definitely look to take as many of these on board, thanks for the tips.
I live in Hyderabad(India). I am looking for options to dispose the plastic covers which pile up in my house. When I see the dump yards they just burn the waste(Including plastic). Can you please suggest a way where I can decompose the plastic at home. This is great to find. Still, I found practical options on this list. This is truly the best 1-100 list I have ever seen. Thanks so much for the work putting this together Beth. I plan on sharing it, hoping others will see that there are choices and its yours to chose to stop using plastics.
This is an amazing list. I can continue to improve to live with less plastic since I realized even though i do my best must of the times.
I keep failing at it. Keep up the amazing work in educating others to live a free plastic life. At first it seemed so impossible, but I now see that most of the things I do are second nature once I got into the grove of it all. Once you get your own system things fall into place. Like most things, I think it depends on what brand you buy. Hi, I work in a dental clinic and every single person who enters the door is obliged to put over his shoes plastic shoes in order to keep the clinic clean.
The amount of used plastic shoes is huge and i just hate watching how much plastic per day we produce. So, I am looking for some sort of solution how still to keep the clinic clean but stop using those awful plastic shoes. I would appreaciate any ideas. What about taking off their outdoor shoes and putting on either a pair of clean socks or slippers which can be provided in a bin at the entrance to help yourself.
Just like you would at home. It would probably cost more than using the plastic ones, but the clinic would become more environment-friendly and, who knows, gain some new patients thanks to thisHi. Thank you for sharing that. Where are you located. My dentist and doctors just wear regular shoes. The Clinic is huge. More than 200 patients are treated per month and they must wear those shoes in the clinic.
The staff is wearing their work pairs of shoes together with their work uniforms, but the patients which are coming from the street for their appointments must cover the dirty soles with the plastic protecting shoes.They're all available right here on our blog, and we think they beat any book you can purchase. This guideour Ultimate ACT Prep Guidecollects all of our most important ACT study guides and articles in one place.
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